IGCSE Biology 4th edition

Biology books by
D G Mackean

Videos illustrating topics covered on this site: Plants

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Mung Bean seeds sprouting

from wjh31

Shot by the science technicians of Reigate college, UK over aprox 10 days with a canon powershot A590 and CHDK firmware with ultra intervalometer script.

This is an example of epigeal germination, in which the cotyledons are brought above ground, turn green and photosynthesise briefly before falling off. The radicle grows first and then the hypocotyl elongates, pulling the cotyledons out of the soil. The plumule can be seen emerging between the cotyledons. Lateral roots can be seen growing. The sunflower germination is similar.

Seeds and Germination: Sunflower
Seed Structure, an Introduction

Fast-growing corn, roots and leaves growing

from mindlapse

Time lapse sequence shot using Pentax K110D and Harbortronics DigiSnap 2100 set to take a frame each 29 minutes 45 seconds. The time lapse spans 10 days.

The radicle grows down into the soil and then the plumule grows straight up, protected by a hard sheath, the coleoptile. This breaks open at the soil surface and the leaves grow out.

Seeds and Germination: Wheat
Seed Structure, an Introduction

Germination of peas - time lapse

from drsubramonian

This is an example of hypogeal germination in which the cotyledons remain below ground while the epicotyl grows and pulls the plumule from between the cotyledons and then out of the ground.

Seeds and Germination: Pea
Seed Structure, an Introduction

See: Seeds and Germination


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